They are sometimes called virtual photons as they only exist for very small intervals of time or space. This is because there are 2 types of electromagnetic “matter”, positive charge and negative charge. If an electron gets near another electron it emits a virtual photon which is absorbed by the second electron and lets it know it need to move away. If it has mass, gravity can act on it. Forces are the same, there are loads of them about but really they’re just combinations of 4 fundamental forces. Fermions also obey the Pauli exclusion principle. this study is called Particle Physics, Elementary Particle Physics or sometimes High Energy Physics (HEP). 1/2, 3/2, 5/2 etc, for example every electron in the universe possesses a spin of 1/2. Whether you’re taking a class, helping kids with homework, or trying to find out how the world works, this book helps you understand basic physics. Compounds, molecules, atoms, electrons and quarks. Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 1 Motivation and Introduction 2 Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 3 Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk However unlike gravity which is always attractive, electromagnetism can be both attractive and repulsive. Electromagnetism is 1 trillion, trillion, trillion times stronger than gravity. Dummies helps everyone be more knowledgeable and confident in applying what they know. 49 $19.99 $19.99. It’s an inverse square law so it gets weaker the further you move away, it also gets stronger for objects of larger mass. Thankfully this isn’t the case, particles follow specific rules and once you known them everything gets a lot easier. The bosons are also unlike the others as they have charge and mass, so much mass in fact that they are heavier that atoms of Rubidium! It’s inversely proportional to distance and is stronger for objects of larger charge. For Electromagnetism the force carrier is the Photon. The spin however can only be one of two things, up or down (+1/2 or -1/2). Its 100 times stronger that EM, an affects all particles with colour. For example take Helium. All particles have a property called spin. This isn’t an actual motion of the particle, but in a quantum mechanical sense, it means that the particle always interacts with other particles as if it’s rotating in a certain way. Inside a nucleus you have protons and neutrons. This gives four possible combinations shown below. Throughout the whole of the known universe there are only 2 types of particle. Each of the fundamental forces of nature has its own Bosons. Before I get into the different types of particle there’s a bit more back story you need. Now you may be thinking that, yes there may only be two categories but I bet they’re filled with hundreds of different subgroups and types. Quarks have a property that can take 3 distinct values, so physicists called those values red, green and blue. Quantum Physics For Dummies. Particles are represented as lines, either straight or wavy, and interactions are depicted as a vertex of the lines. Fermions are all particles that make up matter. 4.7 out of 5 stars 116. Quarks exist in groups that have no overall colour charge, so you can get groups that are red+blue+green=white, anti-red+anti-blue+anti-green=white, red+anti-red=white, blue+anti-blue=white or green+anti-green=white, i.e. Most of the time the lines will have arrows to show more specifically how the particles are moving. Physics faculty at Cornell University for more than a decade, teaching both Physics 101 and Physics 102. The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics (Gottfried and Weisskopf, 1984) was developed throughout the 20th century, although the current formulation was essentially finalized in the mid-1970s following the experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks (Bloom et al., 1969; Breidenbach et al., 1969). The weak nuclear force is responsible for all three types of nuclear decay; Alpha, Beta or Gamma. It is freely available in its entirety in a downloadable PDF form or to be read online at: ... physics, with calculus, at a level suitable for Duke undergraduates. It has zero rest mass and zero charge. The weak nuclear force is the odd one out of all the forces. If you make a Hadron out of 2 quarks it’s called a Meson and if you make a Hadron out of 3 quarks it called a Baryon. The spin of a particle has a fixed value that depends only on the type of particle. This isn’t an actual motion of the particle, but in a quantum mechanical sense, it means that the particle always interacts with other particles as if it’s rotating in a certain way. Paperback $15.49 $ 15. It’s a long ranged force, however the mix of positive and negative charge cancel each other so it’s hardly ever felt on large scale, unlike gravity. Physics for Dummies. Thanks to this book, you don’t have to be Einstein to understand physics. There are two different types of fermions, Leptons and Quarks. Protons, neutrons and electrons In the above example two electrons move towards each other, then we have the interactions with the boson of the electromagnetic force, then they move away from each other. Gravity is the weakest of all the forces, which seems odd at first. The weak force is also different as it only affects left handed particles or right handed antiparticles with flavour. It is also the longest ranged force mainly because it is always attractive. They are the only 2 types found so far. Above the unification energy of about 100 GeV or 1015 kelvin, they would merge into a single Electroweak force. So to fit it in it has to move up to the next shell. The reason you get groupings of 2 or 3 quarks is because of their colour. by Steven Holzner | Jan 29, 2013. Quarks can be red, green or blue and anti quarks can be anti-red anti-green and anti-blue. For example, if a clock is thrown with its face directed forwards it’s Left-handed. This then allows the 2 electrons because spin is part of the quantum state of the electron, so the two electrons are occupying different quantum states.