Thereafter, efforts were targeted at sequencing the genome of the pathogen (Redzuan et al., 2014). However, earlier report by Purseglove (1968) commented that papaya plant was originated from the Caribbean coast of Central America via natural hybridization between Carica peltata and another wild species of papaya. KT833848), and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) (GenBank Accession No. Biol. “Identification of quorum quenching N-Acyl homoserine lactonases from Bacillus sp. Wound Care 2, 490–498. Sekeli, R., Janna, A. O., Muda, P., Namasivayam, P., Abu Bakar, U. K., and Sew, Y. S. (2013). At the beginning, there was ambiguity on the identity of the causal agent for this disease. However, these systems may not be suitable for validating defense-related genes in response to papaya dieback disease since they are not the hosts for the dieback causal pathogen. Phytopathology 52:6. J. Biol. However, public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crop has two-faced values (positive and negative values) despite the fact that there is no clear-cut evidence implicating current marketed GM crops have more health-related risks than conventionally bred crops. Numerous attempts had been made through conventional breeding and manipulation of postharvest approaches but the issues were yet to be solved successfully. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2009.00434.x. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from rice and tomato rhizosphere soil in Malaysia. Bunawan, H., and Baharum, S. N. (2015). Ranked 19th, 0.5% % shares of world imports; Average Production Price. Several strategies had been reported to address the challenges faced by Eksotika specifically against the dieback disease and the fruit’s short shelf-life. Sci. Carica papaya L. or commonly known as papaya, is a major tropical crop consumed worldwide either as a vegetable or fresh fruit or processed products. In some cases, blackened and greasy spot on infection points were observed (Mat Amin et al., 2011). Like other crops in Malaysia, papaya industry faces various issues that jeopardize its future. Current genetic engineering research on papaya is focused on developing Eksotika papaya resistant to dieback disease. J. Agric. 13:e1139. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org, Fitch, M. M. (2005). Last 5 year +51.2%. J. Iran Biotech. (2004) who reported that E. papayae was said to cause canker, however, in the advanced stage of papaya dieback as reported by Maktar et al. (2017). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Statistics Division. Immun. Attempts had also been made to investigate bacteria cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing and its signal molecule, N-Acyl-L-Homoserine Lactone (AHL), which is responsible for pathogenicity in some Gram-negative plant pathogens. Sekeli, R. (2014). “Pests of papaya,” in Tropical Fruit Pests and Pollinators: Biology, Economic Importance, Natural Enemies and Control, eds J. Pena, J. Mat Amin, N., Rahim, M. Y. N., Redzuan, R. A., Tamizi, A. Ling, A. C. K., Zaidan, M. W. A. M., Wee, C.-Y., Rozano, L., Supian, S., Halim, M. M. A., et al. FIGURE 4. doi: 10.4161/psb.1.4.3221. (2011) from MARDI confirmed the causal agent of papaya dieback disease in western parts of Malaysian peninsula was an Erwinia genus from the mallotivora species. RS, MH, and RR registered their graduate studies at Universiti Putra Malaysia, and carried out major parts of their research work at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Cucurbit powdery mildew on papaya. The authors acknowledge Universiti Putra Malaysia for funding the publication of this manuscript. Early symptoms of papaya dieback disease include yellowing and necrosis along leaf edges (Figures 3a) followed by water-soaked areas on the bases of leaf stalks, crowns and along the leaf mid-ribs. "https://ssl." (2015). Funct. The mode of action of the Erwinia pathogen is through invading and colonizing the entire parts of a papaya plant including the shoot, leaf, bark, and fruit. da Silva, J. Mat Amin et al. Papaya Disease Alert. The papaya in Hawaii. Johor was the first affected state, followed by Perak and other states. doi: 10.1080/15427528.2013.795205. It has robust growth characteristics with ability to grow in a wide range of soil types with good drainage system. However, after a 2-year embargo, the partial content can be accessed online via http://www.psasir.upm.edu.my/ as well as a printed version of the thesis can be made by request to the university. Last year-2.4%. Last 3 year +107.8%. Sekeli et al. Nevertheless, the popular varieties were limited to Setiawan, Batu Arang, and Subang 6. Sci. Noted were enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes and elevation of proteins involved in energy production and stress response indicating the initiation of early defense response once the plant was infected. As such, global production of papaya rose gradually and achieved over 13 million metric tons in 2016 (FAOSTAT, 2017). “Viorica: A papaya variety highly tolerant to dieback disease,” in Proceedings of International Congress of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology 2015, Penang. KT833845), mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4) (GenBank Accession No. Last 3 year-7.5%. Plant Signal. In coupling with bioinformatics analysis, five differentially expressed proteins, cysteine protease, phosphoribulokinase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase CYP20-2 and PRH26 protein, were annotated as defense and stress response proteins. 57:774. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01877.x, Mat Amin, N., Bunawan, H., Redzuan, R. A., and Jaganath, I. Genome Announc. A., and Saidi, N. B. Mat Amin, N., Rahim, M. Y. N., Redzuan, R. A., Tamizi, A. Behav. Nakasone, H. Y., and Paull, R. E. (1998). “Overexpression of papaya defense-related genes in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection,” in Proceedings of the 31st Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology,Kota Kinabalu. Ripe papaya is consumed fresh as a dessert fruit while green (unripe) papaya is added into fresh salads. J. “Gene expression analysis of host pathogen interaction in papaya dieback disease using sage technology,” in Proceedings of National Biotechnology Seminar 2010, Kuala Lumber. Front. (2016). |, Strategies to Address the Challenges Faced by Eksotika, http://blast.jcvi.org/euk-blast/plantta_blast.cgi, https://www.thestar.com.my/news/community/2010/09/24/papaya-disease-alert/, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hopefully with the comprehensive data sets provided by frontier -omics technologies, this will help to provide better crop safety assessments that can allay the public fears and convince them to accept GM crops with confidence. PpTFDB: A pigeon pea transcription factor database for exploring functional genomics in legumes. The questions that came to mind are how effective is this method and is it sustainable? Recent findings by Krishnen (2017) indicated that application of microbial consortium on the papaya seedlings could be used to control the spread of the disease. pageTracker._trackPageview(); Article sharing - repository deposits - copyright questions. Tree Forest. Last 5 year +51.2%. Nariana, T. K. (1956). doi: 10.3390/ijms12010039. Wee, C.-Y., Hamid, M. H., and Rozano, L. (2014a). It was postulated that transgenic papaya plants expressing Ahl-lactonase are capable of quenching the pathogen quorum-sensing signaling, and enhance their defense against dieback disease. Phytopathol. (2007). Such attribute is considered unfortunate since the fruits need to be distributed and reach the consumer in a short period of time. Genomics 14, 260–267. In contrast, quorum quenching enzyme, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactonase (Ahl-lactonase) and N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase (Ahl-acylase) which are able to degrade AHLs and eliminate pathogen virulence (Wang et al., 2004; Sio et al., 2006). Supian, S., Ramlee, M. Z., Nazaruddin, N. H., Rozano, L., Wee, C.-Y., Sarip, J., et al. Plant Dis. This declined rapidly after 2005 because of two reasons: the outbreak of the Bacterial Dieback (Erwinia) disease and fruit fly quarantine restrictions from China that affected 60% of our export.